Sanitation Commons Wiki

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This portal describes sanitation technologies which can be applied from the household level to the village level. A complete sanitation system does not consist of only one technology, but rather a chain of technologies, each taking care of a specific function, such as the toilet, transportation, and treatment. Each technology below is dedicated to one particular function in this chain. An example is given at the end of this page.

Below, sanitation technologies are presented in different functional groups: User interface (Toilets, urinals, handwashing), Collection and Storage / Local Treatment, Conveyance, (semi-) Centralized Treatment, and Use of products / disposal.

Jump to more Sanitation links and resources below.


Toilet Facilities Collection and Storage / Local Treatment Conveyance (Semi-) Centralized Treatment Use of Products / Disposal
Dry Toilet
Dry Toilet
Urine Diverting Dry Toilet
Urine Diverting
Dry Toilet
Urinal
Urinal
Pour Flush Toilet
Pour Flush Toilet
Cistern Flush Toilet
Cistern Flush Toilet
Urine Diverting Flush Toilet
Urine Diverting
Flush Toilet
Communal Latrines
Communal Latrines
Tippy Tap
Hygiene - Tippy Tap
Commercial Toilets
Commercial Toilets


Urine Storage Tank / Container
Urine Storage
Tank / Container
Single Pit
Single Pit
Single Ventilated Improved Pit
Single Ventilated
Improved Pit
Double Ventilated Improved Pit
Double Ventilated
Improved Pit
Fossa Alterna
Fossa Alterna
Twin Pits for Pour Flush
Twin Pits
for Pour Flush
Dehydration Vaults
Dehydration Vaults
Composting Chamber
Composting Chamber
Septic Tank
Septic Tank
Anaerobic Baffled Reactor
Anaerobic
Baffled Reactor
Anaerobic Filter
Anaerobic Filter
Biogas Reactor
Biogas Reactor


Jerrycan - tank
Jerrycan - tank
Human-Powered Emptying and Transport
Human-Powered
Emptying and Transport
Motorized Emptying and Transport
Motorized Emptying
and Transport
Simplified Sewer
Simplified Sewer
Solids-free Sewer
Solids-free Sewer
Conventional Gravity Sewer
Conventional
Gravity Sewer
Transfer Station (Underground Holding Tank)
Transfer Station -
Underground Holding Tank
Sewer Discharge Station
Sewer Discharge Station
Settled sewerage (small diameter)
Settled sewerage (small diameter)


Pre-Treatment Technologies
Pre-Treatment
Technologies
Settler
Settler
Imhoff Tank
Imhoff Tank
Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR)
Anaerobic Baffled
Reactor (ABR)
Anaerobic Filter
Anaerobic Filter
Waste Stabilization Pond
Waste Stabilization Pond
Aerated Pond
Aerated Pond
Free-Water Surface Constructed Wetland
Free-Water Surface
Constructed Wetland
Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland
Horizontal Subsurface
Flow Constructed Wetland
Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland
Vertical Flow
Constructed Wetland
Trickling Filter
Trickling Filter
Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor
Upflow Anaerobic
Sludge Blanket Reactor
Activated Sludge
Activated Sludge
Sedimentation - Thickening Ponds
Sedimentation -
Thickening Ponds
Unplanted Drying Beds
Unplanted Drying Beds
Planted Drying Beds
Planted Drying Beds
Co-composting
Co-composting
Biogas Reactor
Biogas Reactor
Tertiary Filtration and Disinfection
Tertiary Filtration
and Disinfection
Struvite recovery
Struvite recovery


Fill and Cover - Arborloo
Fill and Cover
- Arborloo
Application of Stored Urine
Application of
Stored Urine
Application of Dehydrated Faeces
Application of
Dehydrated Faeces
Application of Pit Humus and Compost
Application of Pit
Humus and Compost
Application of Sludge
Application of Sludge
Irrigation
Irrigation
Soak Pit
Soak Pit
Leach Field
Leach Field
Fish Pond
Fish Pond
Floating Plant Pond
Floating Plant Pond
Water Disposal - Groundwater Recharge
Water Disposal -
Groundwater Recharge
Surface Disposal and Storage
Surface Disposal
and Storage
Biogas Combustion
Biogas Combustion


Field experiences

These projects are utilizing sanitation techniques and are part of the project listing in Really Simple Reporting (RSR) on Akvo.org.


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RSR Project 107
Rainwater harvesting in Guinee Bissau
RSR Project 600
Community-led WASH and Safe Motherhood
RSR Project 830
Scanning and Mapping the WASH Situation
RSR Project 388
WASH Alliance project, AMREF in Ethiopia
RSR Project 351
Cost effective means of financing WASH
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RSR Project 459
Upscaling CLTS for Healthy Communities
RSR Project 462
Northern Region WASH Programme
RSR Project 386
Scaling-up using CLTS in Kenya
RSR Project 469
Implementing an IWRM process in Mashuru
RSR Project 361
Improving Communal Health Through WASH
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RSR Project 401
Eau, hygiène et assainissement
RSR Project 364
WASH in Gorkha and Baglung
RSR Project 366
WASH Sustainability through Women Led MFI
RSR Project 367
SWASH in Birendranagar, Surkhet
RSR Project 488
Community-based WASH Project in Nepal


Photo: IRC
  • IRC Sanitation Pack - IRC Sanitation Pack, SanPack for short, contains an overview of available methods, techniques and tools in a low-cost, non-sewered sanitation service model. The materials have been developed and used by IRC and its long-standing and more recent partners in the South and the North in some 20 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America.
  • For a helpful sourcebook in the training of professionals for the sanitation and water sector, browse or download the set of animated PowerPoints called Sustainable Sanitation, by clicking the pink box below.


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Sanitation systems

Example...
This is a complete sanitation system, which consists of a chain of technologies. Reading the icons in the illustration below from the left to the right we have a Urine Diverting Dry Toilet connecting to Storage tanks, where the faeces are taken away through Human-Powered Emptying and Transport to be processed through Co-composting and then finally be used through Application of Compost - Eco-Humus and the Application of Urine.

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The table below lists eight different examples of sanitation systems, going from very simple to more complex. Of course, many other systems are possible, depending on the local context.

1 Single Pit System 2 Waterless System with Alternating Pits 3 Pour Flush Pit System without Sludge Production 4 Waterless System with Urine Diversion 5 Biogas System 6 Blackwater Treatment System with Infiltration 7 Blackwater Treatment System with Effluent Transport 8 Blackwater Transport to (Semi-) Centralized Treatment System 9 Sewerage System with Urine Diversion


Acknowledgements

  • Currently, WASTE is working on a Sanitation Decision Support tool, which will be integrated in this portal in the near future.